The Billings Outpost

How to raise a low-effort, high return garden



A kitchen garden is as much an act of self-expression as a means of growing food. But not all of a garden’s expressiveness is intentional. In the same way that pets and their owners can grow to resemble one another, gardens can reflect their gardeners’ personality, including how fastidious, lazy and greedy they are.

It would be a stretch to accuse me of being overly tidy, and the same can be said for my garden. But lazy and greedy? Guilty as charged. And when I allow these tendencies to play out in the garden, the target result is high output with minimal input, to indulge both my great expectations and my, shall we say, hands-off approach. My garden isn’t the most organized patch of dirt on the block, but it’s the only garden I can grow. And it does what I ask.

At the core of my low-effort, high-return gardening style is a practice I call throwing seeds at the garden. This technique is exactly what it sounds like: After preparing the soil and deciding what I’m going to plant in a given plot, I blanket the area with seeds cast by the handful. These seeds are not for my intended crops, but for a blanket of leafy plants to cover the space between them.

The seeds, usually a mixture of leafy greens and carrots, grow into an edible, living mulch. I look at it as a bonus crop, as it grows in space that isn’t normally planted. And it fills an important function in the garden as a ground cover.

I often toss seeds at the garden multiple times in a season. This year’s first tossing, just the other week, was a mix of curly and flat-leafed endive, tall and round radicchio, escarole, lettuce, cilantro, spinach, chard, basil, and whatever else I could scrounge together in the old seed bag. I even threw in sunflowers, nasturtiums, and beets. I simply dumped all my old seeds from last year’s garden in a bag, walked outside, and tossed my seeds at the empty brown garden by the handful, like I was seeding grass.

The garden had been put to bed last winter with early season seed tossing in mind, so it was ready. I raked the ground before and after seeding, and then watered in the seeds really well. Already the ground is dusted with green confetti.

My garden is basically one big garlic patch, which works well for my practice. Garlic is a great crop to scatter seeds at for several reasons. Garlic plants grow vertically, both above and below ground, so there is no conflict with other leaves or roots. Garlic doesn’t need much tending in general, so you won’t be stepping much on your greens and carrots. Also, garlic likes mulch, and if I wasn’t using this edible living mulch I’d have to mulch it with something else, like straw. After the garlic is harvested in July, it’s off to the races for the scattered carrots and greens, which suddenly have the place to themselves.

Other crops that work well intercropped with edible mulch are similarly lanky, non-spreading plants like corn, onions, broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts, to name a few. Tomatoes, strawberries, and other slow-spreading plants can work as well. After all, tomatoes don’t really fill in until July. You can grow a lot of greenery in the space between in the meantime. You can also train tomatoes vertically to allow more salad space between plants.

Even if you don’t know what main crop you want to plant yet, you can start your garden as soon as the ground has thawed enough to be worked, by throwing seed mix at your blank garden now, and planting into it when the occasion arises. Say you’re at the farmers market and see some beautiful eggplant or pepper transplants to buy. You just take them home, clear a space in the salad and carrot patch, and pop them in. While the transplants are still small you may have to “weed” the neighboring mulch plants to make sure the new starts don’t get smothered by salad. By the same token, now would be a great time to place a seed order for some leaves and carrots.

It’s well-known that eating green leafy vegetables offers multiple health benefits. In addition to the dietary advantages of edible green mulch, it’s also a basic part of my zero-tolerance policy toward exposed earth, Any piece of ground that I can glimpse between plants is a place where sunlight is being wasted. Every wasted photon is a missed opportunity for edible plant growth, and actually does damage when it strikes the earth. Sun and wind both allow moisture to escape the ground, and wind can blow topsoil away.

My edible mulch discourages such damage by forming a thick green mat that captures the sunlight and shields the ground from the elements. It also tempers the daily extremes of hot and cold, and fosters an active bacterial presence in the soil, which can make a big difference in the garden’s yield.

And, anytime you want to have a salad or a stir fry, tear into that green mulch. It will eagerly grow back, which means that unless you’re a total salad addict you can harvest as much as you like. When the garden has finally run its course come fall, make sure to dig up the carrots before the tops die in the frost. After that, the carrots will still remain happy and delicious in the ground-if you can find them. Without the tops to flag them, you won’t know where to dig.

Last Updated on Thursday, 05 September 2013 20:25

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Keeping utility bills low

(StatePoint) Having trouble keeping your home comfortable year-round? You’re not alone. The average mid-size U.S. home has a staggering half mile of gaps and cracks that outside air, including dust and allergens, can infiltrate and that inside, conditioned air can leak out of, according to the Air Barrier Association of America.

You don’t want to let gaps and small holes around windows, doors, plumbing penetrations and electrical outlets go unaddressed.

By doing some straightforward air sealing and insulating projects around the home, homeowners can typically save up to 30 percent on home energy costs, according to the Residential Energy Services Network (RESNET). Even if you’re not that handy, you’re in luck. Sealing your home is as simple as knowing your 1,2,3’s and ABC’s. 

All you need to get started is:

• One sealant: An inexpensive product can do the trick. Opt for a versatile sealant to tackle a series of sealing projects around the home.

•Two Hours: It only takes a couple of hours to seal all those gaps and cracks that cause drafts in your home. Doing so will permanently increase the comfort, performance and energy-efficiency of your house. For a complete home sealing project checklist, visit

• Three Locations: Three key locations will be impacted the most by air sealing projects — the attic, basement and central living space. 

So where should you start looking? An easy trick to remember is the ABC’s of air sealing:

• A is for Attic: The attic is one of the main places in the home you’re likely to lose heat. So in addition to adding insulation, seal around the attic door to help keep air from escaping. You’ll keep heat inside your living space and make your family comfortable year-round by sealing the attic tightly to prevent drafts.

• B is for Basement: It’s damp, dark and cold, and often one of the largest air leakage culprits in the home. It’s also the most accessible, making it an excellent place to start sealing to prevent cooler air from seeping into the rest of your house.

• C is for Central Living Areas: Don’t neglect the most trafficked areas of your house where you eat, sleep, watch TV and hang out.  Fill the gaps and cracks in your living spaces - including around electrical outlets and plumbing penetrations - to prevent drafts throughout the year that directly impact the comfort of the home.

By following easy steps to seal your home, you can put a little extra spending money in your pocket and increase the overall comfort, performance and energy efficiency of your home.



Last Updated on Thursday, 05 September 2013 20:24

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Free cleaning services offered to patients

Maid to Shine Cleaning has partnered with Cleaning for a Reason to offer free professional house cleaning to improve the lives of women undergoing cancer treatment. Maid to Shine cleaning is committed to give back to the community by giving the gift of a clean home using non-toxic “eco-friendly” cleaning products, a news release said.

Elizabeth Buchanan, owner of Billings Maid to Shine, said “The Cleaning for a Reason program represents a community based opportunity for charitable giving and service with benefits that extend far beyond clean. Spirits are healed, gratifying experiences, professional generosity and a the sense of purpose rediscovered.”

Maid to Shine will donate its services to a loved one with cancer who is in need of a sparkling clean and dust-free home. “We want you to feel like your old self again!”

Contact Maid to Shine Cleaning at (406) 702-0337, at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or at

Last Updated on Thursday, 05 September 2013 20:21

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Smart home improvements may save owners money

(StatePoint) During fall, many homeowners focus on small upgrades and improvements. The turning season is the perfect time to find and correct potential compromises in your home before they become larger, and more costly, renovation issues.

“Whether it is routine home exterior checks or appliances purchases, there are many ways homeowners can conduct basic, inexpensive home maintenance,” said Harold “Bud” Dietrich, member of the American Institute of Architects Custom Residential Architecture Network.

DIY home inspection

Many people don’t know that they should perform twice-a-year home inspections. The prime time for these inspections is in the spring and fall. Take the time to give your house a thorough review.

Start by walking the perimeter of your property to see if there is any rotting wood, mold, loose gutters or shingles. Then check for any cracks that have settled or work that could be done to siding, roofing or windows.

Inspect the bathroom and kitchen for loose or missing tiles and leaks in sinks and faucets. Ensure that appliances are working at maximum capacity.

Although these may not seem like major issues, it is much easier to tackle them during milder seasons so potential problems aren’t made worse by extreme weather.

Exterior updates

Many people underestimate the seriousness of dirt and mulch covering the siding of a home. Most building codes actually require at least six inches of the foundation to be exposed.

Beyond breaking these codes, dirt and mulch build-up pulls moisture from the ground and causes it to develop in the walls. Eventually mold will start to grow, which can lead to a variety of indoor air quality and structural problems. Raking around the foundation of your home regularly can help combat this problem.

Another area to consider for easy updates is exterior paint. Peeling paint isn’t only unattractive; it also exposes the siding of your home to the elements. Regular maintenance of areas that need re-painting can save major headaches down the line.

Updating appliances

Buying new appliances can be an investment, and, as such, paying a higher price upfront can actually save you money in the long run.  The right appliances can last for twenty years or more, while more inexpensive models often break down after a few years. Newer models are also often more energy efficient. If cost or budget is an issue, store display models are often offered at extremely discounted prices.

Also make an investment in flooring and countertops. Buying laminate countertops will initially be cheaper than granite countertops, but in ten years the granite countertops will still look brand new, while the laminate will be worn out and need to be replaced.

An architect can help homeowners apply many of these cost-saving home improvements in smart and strategic ways. To find one in your area, visit:

Don’t wait. Fall is the ideal time to make small improvements that will save you money and time later on.


Last Updated on Thursday, 05 September 2013 20:20

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NorthWestern warns of scam

NorthWestern Energy is again warning residential and business customers about an attempted scam involving collection on allegedly overdue utility bills.

In recent days, an individual telephoned a NorthWestern Energy customer in Huron, S.D., claiming to be an employee of the company and demanding payment on an energy bill. The customer was told that if immediate payment wasn’t made, utility service would be terminated.

The customer lost $300 after purchasing a prepaid debit card issued by a discount store and sharing the card’s redemption information with the scammer. The customer later contacted NorthWestern Energy to report the activity. A similar attempt targeting a NorthWestern customer in Butte, was also reported. In May, a business owner in Bozeman lost $1,000 in a nearly identical scam.

NorthWestern reported the recent incidents to law enforcement authorities. The activity appears to be the latest version of a scam that has targeted a number of NorthWestern customers this year. Across the nation, other utilities have reported similar scam activity.

The phone callers typically seek immediate payment of “overdue” utility bills, often demanding credit-card numbers or other form of payment that can be converted to cash.

NorthWestern reminds customers to be vigilant when it comes to anyone seeking payment information on utility bills, either in person or via the telephone or Internet. The phone callers can be convincing.

They might use “spoofing” software that lets them falsely display the name and phone number of the utility company on the recipient’s Caller ID.

NorthWestern will provide several past-due notices before terminating service. If you get a cancellation notification, always verify it by dialing the customer service number on your utility bill. Don’t supply any personal information unless you are sure you are indeed working with the utility. NorthWestern never asks customers to use a prepaid debit card for payment.

The Better Business Bureau offers these tips to avoid falling victim to a utility scam:

* Never provide your Social Security Number, credit card number or banking information to anyone requesting it over the phone or at your home unless you initiated the contact and feel confident with whom you are speaking.

* If you receive a call claiming to be your utility company and feel pressured for immediate payment or personal information, hang up the phone and call the customer service number on your utility bill.

* Never allow anyone into your home to check electrical wiring, natural gas pipes or appliances unless you have scheduled an appointment or have reported a utility problem. Also, ask utility employees for proper identification.

* Always think safety first. Do not give in to high-pressure tactics over the phone for information or in person.

Customers with questions or concerns about potential scams should contact NorthWestern Energy or their state’s Consumer Affairs department to report possible scams or questionable or business offers. Montana customers can contact NorthWestern at (888) 467-2669.

Last Updated on Thursday, 05 September 2013 20:19

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Signs you need insulation

(StatePoint) The average family spends more than $1000 annually – nearly half a home’s total energy bill – on heating and cooling costs, according to the U.S. government's Energy Star program. Unfortunately, a large portion of those expenses are wasted due to poor home insulation.

Homeowners prepping for winter can stop the energy waste cycle by taking a closer look at their insulation. As one of the fastest and most cost-efficient ways to reduce energy waste and lower bills, insulation traps warm air inside a home’s walls – similar to how a fleece sweater does for the body – to regulate a home’s temperature. But how do you know if your home is properly insulated?

“Fortunately, there are telltale signs that can alert any homeowner that it’s time to add to or replace their home’s insulation — before the temperature plunges and the energy bill rises,” says Mike Benetti, segment manager at Roxul, a leading manufacturer of stone wool insulation.

The experts at Roxul advise any homeowner with a do-it-yourself mentality to run through the following checklist to determine whether their home has adequate insulation:

• Vintage home: Prior to consistent building codes, most homes built before 1980 were not insulated. If your home has no materials trapping heat, energy conservation is an uphill battle. Walls, ceilings and floors are the most important areas to add insulation for an immediate, positive impact on a home’s energy usage and bills.

• Non-stop furnace: Does your furnace seem to run non-stop in the winter? Adequate insulation leads to less maintenance on your heating system, as it lasts longer, runs less and will require less maintenance for long-term cost savings.

• Temperature inconsistency: If you feel cold spots coming from the walls or attic, or one room of your home is drafty and another one warm, you may need to beef up your insulation. The fireplace, walls and attic are prime spots for drafts.

Look for insulation that can fit snugly in rafters and other tight areas. For example, Roxul ComfortBatt insulation made from recycled stone, can be cut with a serrated blade for an exact fit.

• Roof hot spots: If your shingles are exposed after a recent snowfall, chances are these “hot spots” are indicative of warm air escaping. Check your attic for adequate insulation.

If you can easily see your floor joists, you should add more.

 Use insulation, such as stone wool, that won’t sag or lose density over time.

• Mold Growth: Mold in the corners of ceilings could mean your current insulation slumps and holds moisture. If this occurs, it’s time to replace your insulation with one that does not store or transfer moisture and is completely resistant to mold, mildew, rot and bacterial growth, such as Roxul ComfortBatt.

More information about properly insulating your home can be found at

Don't let cool weather take you by surprise. With proper insulation, you can improve the comfort of your home significantly and enjoy energy savings.


Last Updated on Thursday, 05 September 2013 20:17

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In Billings, landscaping is all about cosmetics


“In Billings,” the letter said, “we value neighborhood and community efforts to maintain a beautiful City.” The problem was, the letter maintained, that I had not been doing my part in these efforts. My yard represented a “nuisance” to the “public health and welfare” because it contained “untended vegetation” more than a foot tall. If I failed to rein in this excess and refused to pay the variety of fines that could build up in response to said failure, a lien would be placed on my property.

I thought about the six years of my residency at the address referred to in the city letter and the care I had taken to choose just the right plantings. I thought about my aching hands, knees and back from all the yard work I had done. I wondered, to be succinct, what exactly the complaint was.

So I assessed my yard. Ah, there was bindweed growing up the fence in back and bindweed in the front flowerbeds. Now, bindweed is about the most vile plant known to man, and I have been working all these years to control it. I could understand any complaint lodged against bindweed.

But, as I soon discovered upon talking with one of Billings’ two code enforcement officers, bindweed was not the problem. No, it was my blue grama grass out front, a plant with lovely seedheads and a rich green hue in summer that turns golden in fall and winter. I also — gulp — had a patch of sunflowers.

Blue grama is a warm season grass and, I admit, it does look pretty ratty until it greens up. However, it requires very little water (about 12 inches per year seems to work well), no fertilizing, and little (if any) mowing. It also effectively chokes out bindweed and other noxious intruders, and thus requires no applications of herbicide.

However, to please the good people of Billings, I will keep it trimmed so that it looks like an almost grown-out crew cut.

Frankly, though, I have to wonder at the popular definition of “public health and welfare,” and how growing region-appropriate plants constitutes a “nuisance.” A quick exploration of neighborhood yards has led me to several conclusions in this regard:

1. Codes are enforced haphazardly. As the very kind code enforcement officer explained, there are only two such professionals in Billings, and they must respond to complaints. Perhaps they have little time for problems that do not generate outrage.

2. Bindweed and other noxious invasives are ubiquitous. Thus, there is no concern for quality of vegetation. It’s all about cosmetics. If I keep a crop of goat-head thorns at a tidy 4 inches, there is no health hazard or public nuisance even though all the neighborhood kids will have flat bike tires and their dogs will limp.

3. No particular effort is made by the city to trim weeds in public spaces.

4. Vegetation that obstructs drivers’ vision is not deemed a “nuisance.”

5. Drenching a lawn with herbicides does not constitute a health hazard and, is, in fact, quite common.

My explorations of the neighborhood and, indeed, the city itself have led me to characterize the choices we citizens of Billings make about our living space. We prefer monocultures to diversity, convenience to beauty, and order to disorder. Certainly, these preferences are understandable if biologist E.O. Wilson is right when he claims that we humans innately crave the open, grassy landscapes in which we evolved.

Still, given our dwindling resources and tight pocketbooks, why doesn’t the city encourage (and why don’t citizens demand) a more suitable use of our yards? They are, let’s face it, basically prairie. What should grow here are bunch grasses, skunkbush sumac, cottonwoods, deer, rabbits, and bison.


Ay, there’s the rub. Though going a bit “natural” in our landscaping would conserve water, save money, and limit chemical runoff into our rivers, it would also force us to consider our presence in this place. Why did the wild things that lived here have to be “cleared” away?  And what about the human cultures that inhabited our neighborhoods, say, a hundred years ago? What of them?

No, most of us don’t want to think about that. So we cultivate our Kentucky blue grass at great effort and expense, put money in the pockets of chemical companies, and rarely (from what I have observed) venture outside at all. This lack of pedestrian traffic must also be why very few homeowners shovel their walks in the winter, preferring to leave them an icy hazardous mess ... but that’s another argument.

Cara Chamberlain teaches at Rocky Mountain College.


Last Updated on Thursday, 05 September 2013 20:15

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Friends recall Hurdle’s life of service, activism

By JANE WHITE - The Billings Outpost

Joan Hurdle, 81, who died here Aug. 10, devoted herself to innumerable causes pivotal to social justice in Billings, including issues relating to children and incarcerated women.

Theresa Schneder, a Billings attorney and current president of the League of Women Voters here, said she read “Every Dam Place,” Ms. Hurdle’s autobiography of nearly 500 pages when it was published in 2011.

“What struck me about her book was how honest she was,” Ms. Schneider said. “She stood up for what she believed in and she was fiercely independent. ”

Ms. Schneider and others, including friends in the Billings Unitarian Universalist Fellowship, were mourning the death of Ms. Hurdle, who had been an environmentalist, teacher, legislator and feminist who sought change for families on Billings’ South Side.

Merry Ann Peters, 55, who works at Yellowstone Public Radio, said, “She was a huge advocate for the South Side. I just got such a kick out of watching her ride her bike everywhere around town. She was one of the fiercest fighters we ever had, especially for alternative transportation in Billings. She got us involved in transportation studies, she got the LWV invited to city planning meetings, and it was a really good government exercise.”

Ms. Schneder said Ms. Hurdle made massive achievements in improving life for Montanans, including members of Native Nations on nearby reservations. In her autobiography, Ms. Hurdle wrote, “The twentieth century in America was a century of segregation and a struggle for equality. It was a struggle for minorities, for women, for the handicapped, and for everyone who was judged by those in power, to be ‘less than.’”

Mindy Nielsen, a 49-year-old postal clerk from Plentywood who has lived in Billings for 27 years, said she met Ms. Hurdle at an “info picket” at former U.S. Rep. Denny Rehberg’s office in 2011. Nielsen said, “I invited a lot of political people and she was the only one who came who was not a postal employee. She brought Pam Busey (Montana State Department of Labor administrator) with her to the picket.”

Nielsen said she also was engaged in issues high on Hurdle’s list. “I used to keep track of her when she was in the Montana State Legislature and I used to read all her letters to the editor,” said Ms. Nielsen.

In the epilogue to her autobiography, entitled “Words from 2050,” Ms. Hurdle wrote as if she had accomplished most of her lofty environmental and transportation  goals: “By 2025 the nations of this planet were finally able to reduce the amount of [carbon dioxide] in the air of this planet back down to 350 parts per million. Along with many worldwide significant energy saving methods, transportation has changed everywhere. Montana trains, which run along the old heavy-line right-of-way, are supplemented here in Billings, as everywhere else, by bus loops or electric train routes, running everywhere at all hours; to the colleges, education centers, hospitals, dorms, play areas, farms, greenhouses, and shopping areas.”

Merry Ann Peters recently began an initiative to purchase a bench to honor Ms. Hurdle. Call (406) 860-7879 to contribute.

Last Updated on Thursday, 29 August 2013 10:19

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Intermittent fasting may improve health, diet

By ARI LEVAUX  - @arilevaux

If you consume more calories than you burn, you gain weight. Do the reverse and you lose weight. This formula seems simple enough, but contains a world of nuance that we are just beginning to understand. Eating fats, for example, ends to satiate, which can reduce caloric intake, while carbohydrates and sugars can inspire hunger. And evidence is accruing that the timing of your meals can affect metabolism. When you eat may be as important as what you eat, or how much.

A study in the June 2012 issue of Cell Metabolism looked at two groups of mice. Both groups the same number of calories worth of the same diet. The only difference was one group ate whenever they wanted, day or night, while the other was allowed to eat only during an eight-hour daily span. The mice that ate whenever they wanted grew fatter, exhibited higher blood sugar, decreased insulin sensitivity, decreased motor skills and more fatty deposits on their livers.

This is one of many recent studies pointing to the benefits of a dietary regime called intermittent fasting, or “IF” for short. Many IFers, as they’re called, combine IF with exercise during fasting periods, an approach called fasted training. Martin Berkhan, author of the Leangains blog, is grotesquely ripped, regularly eats ungodly amounts of cheesecake, and has a Beleiber-esque following of eager disciples. He advocates a schedule similar to that of the experimental group of mice in the above study: an eight-hour feeding window during which he eats whatever he wants, and a 16-hour fasting window, which he concludes with a workout before eating his first meal of the day, in early afternoon.

What’s anecdotally interesting about IF and fasted training is how vocal practitioners are, not only about their killer abs but also benefits like increased mental clarity and productivity and a generally enhanced sense of well-being, while reporting how little they miss food while fasting.

An April 2013 study in the British Journal of Nutrition offers some of the most concrete support to date for the idea that IF can promote lasting weight loss. A group of overweight women followed an IF format called the 5-2 diet, in which they ate freely for five days and consumed a low-calorie diet the other two days of the week. The control group followed a conventional weight-loss diet of smaller portions of low-cal food on a typical, three-meals-a-day schedule. The 5-2 diet group lost significantly more weight than the control group and showed improved insulin sensitivity, which indicates a move away from a diabetic condition.

One of the subjects told NPR’s The Salt blog that she not only lost weight, but “felt quite refreshed and healthy” on the 5-2 schedule, and plans to “carry on” with it.

Mark Mattson directs the Laboratory of Neurosciences at the National Institute on Aging, and is a professor of neuroscience at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. He studies the roots of age-related neurodegenerative decline, and diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Lately his research has focused on the effects of intermittent fasting on these and other age-related problems.

Working primarily with rodents, his lab has found significant health benefits to both IF and exercise, both of which he views in an evolutionary context. In a recent article in Health Naturally magazine, Mattson wrote:

“From an evolutionary perspective, IF is normal and eating 3 meals a day plus snacks is abnormal. Going without food for most of the day or even for several days is a challenge that we are very capable of meeting. Similarly, humans are capable of quite remarkable amounts of physical activity, particularly endurance running, which has been an important factor in their evolution. Challenges such as IF and exercise are not only tolerable, but we thrive on them because they make our cells and organs stronger, and more likely to recover from injuries and illnesses.”

Mattson’s rodent experiments have shown that mild stresses like hunger and exercise can stimulate the growth of new brain cells, among other examples of cellular resilience. His lab has also linked IF to decreased blood pressure, improved recovery from stroke, decreased diabetic neuropathy, lowered cholesterol, decreased cancer rates, improved cognitive function and reduced inflammation in many parts of the body, including the lungs of asthmatics.

An IFer himself, Mattson rarely eats breakfast or lunch. His research and practice have turned him into a vocal critic of the food and drug industries for taking the low road with respect to public health. From his Health Naturally article:

“While the scientific evidence conclusively shows that IF is good for health, particularly in individuals who are overweight, health care providers rarely or never prescribe IF diets to their patients. Why? Sadly, the reason for this lack of effort by primary care physicians is that no one profits from IF prescriptions. The processed food and agriculture industries collaborate to produce and market energy-dense foods that include chemical additives that are addictive. ... Drugs are promoted by pharmaceutical companies with their implicit mantra: ‘don’t worry about getting a disease, we have a pill you can take for that.’”

The calories-consumed-vs.-calories-burned formula is not broken, but it certainly isn’t as simple as it’s often portrayed. And there is more than body fat at stake. Even though the medical establishment has yet to embrace IF, the good news is no prescription is required, and it might even save you money. By Mattson’s estimates, IF can cut about 20 percent of your food bill, along with that stubborn belly fat.


Last Updated on Thursday, 15 August 2013 11:03

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Shigella infections on rise in Yellowstone County

RiverStone Health

RiverStone Health officials have identified an increase in Shigella infections in Yellowstone County. To date, five cases have been confirmed and an additional two cases are pending confirmation. Three individuals required hospitalization.

In a typical year, Yellowstone County may report only one or two cases. The Montana Department of Public Health and Human Services reports eight additional confirmed cases in the state. Montana usually sees 11 cases of shigellosis annually. 

Symptoms of Shigella infection include diarrhea, often bloody, fever and stomach cramps and may appear 12 to 96 hours after exposure to the bacteria. However, some infected people may not show any symptoms. The infection usually resolves in four to seven days and hospitalization is rarely required.  

“Five reported cases of Shigella infection may not seem large, but we estimate that for every reported case, the actual number of cases could be 20 times greater,” said John Felton, president and chief executive officer of RiverStone Health and Yellowstone County health officer. 

Shigella bacteria is found in the stool of infected people and passed on to others via the fecal–oral route or by eating or drinking contaminated products. People who are infected with Shigella bacteria should not prepare food or beverages until they have had no diarrhea for at least two days. Infected individuals working in food/beverage service, patient care or child care, should not go to work until they have been symptom-free for two days. In addition, children who have been infected should not attend any daycare facility or school until they have been symptom-free for two days. 

Shigella infection is most likely to occur among toddlers who are not fully toilet trained and for this reason, special precaution should be taken to ensure that diapers are disposed of in a closed-lid garbage can, the changing area is wiped down with a diluted bleach solution or other disinfectant and that those changing diapers wash their hands and the child’s hands with soap and warm water after changing the diapers. 

Shigella infections can be prevented by:

• Washing hands with soap and warm water carefully and frequently, especially after going to the bathroom, after changing diapers, and before preparing foods or beverages.

• Disposing of soiled diapers properly.

• Disinfecting diaper changing areas after using them.

• Keeping children with diarrhea out of child care settings.

• Supervising hand-washing of toddlers and small children after they use the toilet.

• Not preparing food for others while ill with diarrhea.

• Avoiding swallowing water from ponds, lakes, or untreated pools.

“The number of reported shigellosis cases is a concern and outbreaks can quickly get out of hand,” said Felton. “To aid our efforts in controlling the spread of disease, it is extremely important to follow good hand hygiene practices as well as to teach and assist young children with proper hand-washing techniques.”

Last Updated on Thursday, 15 August 2013 11:01

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Billings Clinic ranked No. 1

Billings Clinic hospital has been ranked No. 1 in Montana for 2013-14 and is recognized among the Best Hospitals in the Custer region by U.S. News & World Report.

Billings Clinic is high-performing in gastroenterology and GI surgery, geriatrics, gynecology, nephrology, neurology and neurosurgery and pulmonology. The annual U.S. News Best Hospitals rankings, now in their 24th year, recognize hospitals that excel in treating the most challenging patients.

U.S. News evaluates hospitals in 16 adult specialties. In most specialties, it ranks the nation’s top 50 hospitals and recognizes other high-performing hospitals that provide care at nearly the level of their nationally ranked peers.

“A hospital that emerges from our analysis as one of the best has much to be proud of,” said Avery Comarow, U.S. News Health Rankings editor. “Only about 15 percent of hospitals are recognized for their high performance as among their region’s best. Just 3 percent of all hospitals earn a national ranking in any specialty.”

U.S. News publishes Best Hospitals to help guide patients who need a high level of care because they face particularly difficult surgery, a challenging condition, or added risk because of other health problems or age. Objective measures such as patient survival and safety data, the adequacy of nurse staffing levels and other data largely determined the rankings in most specialties.

The specialty rankings and data were produced for U.S. News by RTI International, a leading research organization based in Research Triangle Park, N.C. Using the same data, U.S. News produced the state and metro rankings.

The rankings have been published at and will appear in print in the U.S. News Best Hospitals 2014 guidebook, available in bookstores and on newsstands Aug. 27.

Last Updated on Thursday, 15 August 2013 10:59

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Stroke certification awarded

The Joint Commission, in conjunction with The American Heart Association/American Stroke Association, recently recognized Billings Clinic with Advanced Certification for Primary Stroke Centers.

Achievement of Primary Stroke Center Certification signifies an organization’s dedication to fostering better outcomes.  Billings Clinic’s Primary Stroke Center Certification has demonstrated that their program meets elements of performance to achieve long-term success in improving outcomes for stroke patients.

Billings Clinic underwent an on-site review in June 2013. A Joint Commission expert reviewed Billings Clinic’s compliance with the requirements for The Joint Commission’s Disease-Specific Care Certification program as well as primary stroke center requirements, such as collecting Joint Commission core measure data and using it for performance improvement activities.

Billings Clinic will be able to display The Joint Commission’s Gold Seal of Approval.

Last Updated on Thursday, 15 August 2013 10:58

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Governor releases plan for healthier Montana

HELENA – Montana Gov. Steve Bullock released a plan in June that aims to lead to a healthier Montana. The plan is entitled, “Big Sky. New Horizons. A Healthier Montana: A Plan to Improve the Health of Montanans.”

“We all know that healthy children are better students, healthy adults make a more productive work force, healthy seniors enjoy more satisfying retirement years, and a healthy population is essential to a healthy economy,” Bullock said. “This plan focuses on prevention, saving health care dollars and creating a common agenda for health improvement.”

The plan was released in conjunction with a meeting of the Association of Montana Public Health Officials and the Department of Public Health and Human Services (DPHHS) at the Great Northern Hotel in Helena.

DPHHS led the effort to examine the health of Montanans and develop strategies to address critically important health issues using the best science available. Participation from more than 130 organizations provided essential input into the plan from stakeholders across Montana.

The plan focuses on six health priority areas:

• Preventing, identifying and managing chronic diseases;

• Promoting the health of mothers, infants and children;

• Preventing, identifying and controlling communicable disease, preventing injuries and reducing exposure to environmental health hazards;

• Improving mental health and reducing substance abuse; and,

• Strengthening Montana’s public health and health care system. Within each health priority area are strategies for action.

The document is available at

Creating a healthier Montana will take strong partnerships among state, tribal and local governments, as well as private, non-profit and other community organizations. The governor will appoint an oversight body to direct and oversee the implementation of this plan.

Gov. Bullock encouraged all Montanans to join him in taking responsibility for their health by following recommendations from the plan.

“Stay active and eat well; get age appropriate immunizations; take simple steps to prevent injuries; see a healthcare provider regularly; and contribute to and enjoy a healthy environment,” he said. “Together we can create a healthier Montana.”


Last Updated on Thursday, 15 August 2013 10:57

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Summer ArtWalk shows best of regional artists

More than two dozen art galleries and businesses host free receptions for local and regional artists during the Summer ArtWalk.

The ArtWalk runs from 5-9 p.m. Friday, Aug. 2, downtown. Maps are at the galleries and on Page 19 of this issue of the Outpost.

Among the highlights:

• The Western Heritage Center is holding its Western Artists of America show, which runs through Aug. 31.

• The work of Billings artist Mana Lesman is shown at Barjon’s Books. Ms. Lesman calls her work “graphic surrealism.” Many pieces are concerned with the history of the written word, belief systems and the forms of decoration humans have invented to adorn the objects in our world. 

• Big Sky Cheap Trees shows works by Kerry Epley and Kevyn Pust. Ms. Epley says her son is her greatest inspiration: “I believe I am a super creative genius ... a very abstract artist, and given more space to paint, my possibilities would become limitless.” Mr. Pust, a 17-year-old from Bozeman, says his “exhibit is based completely on space and nature all painted with cans of spray paint.”

• At CTA Architects, artist Dick Moulden says, “I try to put on canvas what I see in nature, and hope the viewer sees something that reminds him or her of a special place or time.”

• Canvas, a local volunteer-powered arts advocacy collective, holds a “reverse auction” in connection with its Extended Exposure exhibition at the Babcock Theater arcade. Live music and refreshments are included. For information, go to

• Photographer Ellen Erikson, who has a bachelor of fine arts degree from Seattle University, shows “A Selection of Photographs” at Good Earth Market. She says, “I shoot the vast majority of my photographs on film, developing the negatives and prints myself. The darkroom is my sanctuary.” Recently she has been working on “old school” techniques that require even more of a hands-on approach.

• Stephen Haraden shows his newest paintings and discusses his works in progress at the Stephen Haraden Studio.

• Jens Gallery opens a new exhibit, “Sticks and Stones,” with an artist’s reception during ArtWalk. The work of two Montana artists is showcased: jewelry artist Kris Kramer of Whitefish and furniture designer Todd Clippinger of Billings. Metal sculptor Laura Walker of Montana State University Billings is the featured student artist of the show. Her work “gives objects a second chance through the fabrication of steel.” 

• At McCormick Café, artist Terri Porta is a Billings native who drew inspiration from her 3-year-old son, Isaac. Work in photography, original oils and a few acrylic masterpieces are shown. Austin Martin plays live music.

• The Toucan Gallery features two artists whose work was recently brought to Billings by the gallery. Ryan Mitchell is a potter from Bozeman whose ceramic vessels represent a stated goal to create beautiful objects meant for everyday use. Brian Reed founded Old School Stationers in Portland, Ore., in 2004. He and his wife, Amy, work without computers, using techniques and equipment from an earlier era.

• The Sandstone Gallery shows pottery and paintings by Jennifer Baretta, paintings and sculptures by Leo Olson and turned wooden bowls by guest artist Gary Lavine. Live music is provided.

• Terry Moore Photographers Studio shows art on the theme of water, drawing on the work of the African Reflections Foundation, which builds wells in African villages.

 She recently made a trip to African, and ArtWalk also showcases the work of photographer Jeff Reiter.


Last Updated on Thursday, 01 August 2013 12:04

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Layman writes ‘frightful’ new book for children

“The Tree of Lights,” by Curt Layman. Tate Publishing and Enterprises, LLC. $9.99

By CAL CUMIN - For The Outpost

Curt Layman sits in front of a couple of hundred kids and asks them what they think of the opening line of his new book, “The Tree of Lights”: “Once upon a time … .”

Before he can continue the gym at the Bridger Elementary School erupts in laughter and jeers. Curt muses, “I think they’ve heard this one before.”

The allotted time passes quickly, the Billings author and carpentry contractor clearly entertaining the young audience while thoroughly enjoying the wide-ranging discussion, as the students keenly question him about book writing, the publishing business, how much money he makes from writing and profit margins. 

Mr. Layman doesn’t do a reading, per se, as the whole hour is spent answering questions and exploring ideas. He says, “I could write another book on just their great questions and unique ideas; and the younger they are the more voluble and the more imaginative their comments.”

The eighth-graders toward the back of the room tend to be more aloof. He tries another opening: “Once upon a most frightful night … .” This one gets some applause, and he can tell it hooks a lot of them.

This is Mr. Layman’s second book. His first, “The Christmas Cheese,” was published last year. It introduced the thimble-size world of a mouse family and the main character, Junior Mouse, and what happens in a typical human home when the ‘tall ones’ leave at Christmas.

With his core characters now known, Mr. Layman is free with this second book to move Junior Mouse into unlimited opportunities of adventure (and probably further books).

The blue-black of the book’s cover with its dark shadow of an old sailing ship on a foaming, ghostly sea leads the young reader directly into “a most frightful night.”

From there it is nonstop action in a world where — not only do animals communicate with people — but a forgotten clan of leering trees can plot in silence, their twisted branches forming spindly arms and gnarly hands to snatch the unaware.

Last Updated on Thursday, 11 July 2013 15:02

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